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Dr. Arnd Bernaerts

Author in Climate Change Matters – Oceans Govern Climate

- Trafford Publishing -











Book Contents

A.     Introduction

 1    Scope and Aim         
Prologue : Article from 1993          

 B.     Cooling of Europe 

7     Arctic Europe - winter of 1939/40 (2_11)          
West Wind lost - Europe cut off (2_12)          
War at sea 1939 -  Facts and events (2_13)          
Sea Mines September - December 1939 (2_14)          
Bombs and depth charges at sea (2_15)          
Cooling of North Sea - 1939 (2_16)          
Baltic Sea paved way for extreme winter (2_17)          
Cyclones and shells - War at sea events (2_21)          
Resultant Rain due to War - 1939 (2_31)          
USA winter weather 1939/40 caused by war 2_32)          
War in China  - 1939 (2_33)          
Russia invades Finland, December 1939 (2_41)          
Turkey Earth Quake - 27 December 1939 (2_51)          
Mediterranean - Strange weather - winter 1939/40 (2_52) 

C.     Three European winters: 1939 – 42 

153   Occupation of Norway - Return of Ice Age (3_11)          
Naval activities in Baltic Sea 1941 (3_21)            
Winter weather - Cold axis 1941/42 (3_22)          
Stockholm’s arctic winter of 1942 (3_23)          
Three year ice package, 1939-1942 (3_31)           

D.    Global sea war and climate changes 

211   Oceans in times of war: 1942 to 1945  (4_11)  
Ocean System affected (4_12)          
Extreme winter of 1946/47 in Europe (4_21)  

E.     Severe Warming 1918 

251   Europe Weather-Influence by WWI (5_11)
Spitsbergen heats up - Big Warming 1918 (5_12)
WWI warms up climate at Spitsbergen? (5_13)
Sea Mines Warfare 1914 - 1918 (5_14)
Warming of Europe, Greening of Greenland (5_15) 

F.      Climate changes twice 

303   Two wars at sea - Two climate shifts (6_11)          
Epilogue, Article from 1994          

 G. 313 References   


Scope and Aim

The presentation seeks to demonstrate that the industrialized world contributed to at least two significant climatic changes during the 20th century. Large-scale anthropogenic weather modification and climatic changes resulted from two destructive sea wars. This became particularly obvious when an arctic winter befell Northern Europe only four months after World War II had started in September 1939. To establish a definite connection between war at sea and climate change, climatic data for first few months of WWII are analyzed in fourteen chapters. Thereon climatic data are analyzed concerning the next two war winters of 1940-41 and 1941-42, in six supplementary papers. It can be seen that record cold winters occurred in Europe only.

 This elaboration is to establish further that two major climatic changes during the last century, viz. two decades of warming before WWII and four decades of cooling from 1940-80, are also closely linked to war at sea. WWI (1914-1918) presumably initiated the warming process; and WWII definitely transformed the world into a cooler state. A total of nine chapters cover various findings in this respect  Full Text.




What conclusion can be drawn? 

From final chapter “Climate Shifts – (6_11), page 309

Human impact by the two wars at sea 1914/18 and 1939/45 on regional and global climate has been explained in a number of chapters. The anthropogenic climatic forcing occurs primarily through changes and modifications to the ‘natural’ status of ocean and seas. They transform this to short-term weather modification, or long-term climatic changes. 

If the thesis on climatic changes by war at sea activities has its merits, some explanations on the general warming trend since 1880 may have to be reviewed. Like the anthropogenic impact over two short periods within just a few years, which accelerated the warming trend in 1918, and halted it in 1939, the industrialized world uses global oceans and seas excessively, by installations in tidal waters or floating means, particularly by naval, merchant and fishing vessels. Hardly any of the numerous uses is neutral in the way that the temperature and salinity structure is not ‘affected’. While there is ‘input’ and ‘output’, the overall balance sheet will show higher figures on the ‘input’ side, due to the high insulating capacity of water. However, on the ‘output’ side it eventually results in warming the atmosphere. 

With the end of the Little Ice Age, the use of the oceans no longer remained ‘neutral’. Day by day huge water masses are ‘turned about’. What it means in climatic terms could be demonstrated by explaining the climatic impact of the war at sea.  Understanding the global warming trend since 1880 primarily means understanding the structure, conditions and changes of the oceans and seas HERE.


Trafford Publishing
1663 L
iberty Drive, Bloomington,
IN 47403


Climate Change
& Naval War

A Scientific Assessment

By Arnd Bernaerts


Price $31.04
Published: 6/6/2005
Format: Perfect Bound Softcover

Pages: 344

Size: 6x9

ISBN: 978-1-41204-846-0

Print Type: B/W


Preparing and publishing of this web-site became necessary when WIKIPEDIA
deleted the  Biography
__1st online 2013-Dec. 2015;
__2nd online Jan--Apr. 2016
More Info
and Discussion

From book page 5
[First published 1993 –Details below

The climatic change issue has recently become one of the most serious challenges facing humankind. As L.O.S. Lieder insists on brevity, even though this issue deserves to be discussed at length, I beg your forgiveness for formulating my thesis directly and perhaps somewhat dramatically: climatic specialists and those people who have contributed to recent debates are possibly as much of a threat to the climate as the pollution caused by industrialization. For almost one hundred years, science has failed to realize that climate and the oceans are one and the same thing. As a result, the 1982 U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea, the only true treaty dealing with climatic change issues, was thwarted the moment it came into effect over ten years ago.

       Although climate should long ago have been defined as "the continuation of the ocean by other means," the Framework Convention on Climate Change of June 1992 came up with an alternate definition: "The totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere and their interactions." What this all boils down to is that climate is nature working in all its forms – a nonsensical definition and useless as a basis for legal regulations.

       As recently as 1990, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) came to the conclusion that CO2 was altering the climate and that "understanding and detecting the earth's climate system must surely be the greatest scientific challenge yet to be faced by humankind. It is a worthy banner under which the nations of the world can unite" (IPCC, Working Group I, p. 328). Certainly not a bad thing for science. The 1992 Earth Summit resulted in an unprecedented success for the scientists working in the climatic area, forcing politicians to listen to them and paving the way for greater financial backing in an effort to understand and come to terms with the climate system.

       Yet, what is good for scientists is not necessarily good for the climate. The simple fact of the matter is that meteorology has never been particularly inter­ested in climate except for statistical purposes, defining it as the average weather over a given period of time. On the other hand, there are the mathematicians, physicists and chemists, who do little more than apply their laboratory findings, theoretical conclusions and abstract calculations performed on greenhouse gases to a real natural system with little regard for the true essence of climate.

      But while the seas continue to influence the climate, science is staring into the air (or, to be more precise, the atmosphere) in an attempt to find out what makes the climate tick. What is more, scientists have misled the international community of nations by claiming that greenhouse gases are the actual cause of climate change. This may yet prove to be the real tragedy of the climate change issue. After all, the oceans are still the part of the world about which the least is known. There is neither an "inventory" of the oceans nor an observation system. What is even sadder is that climate is still far from being acknowledged as the blue print of the oceans. 

      So beware of IPCC's call for unification in its attempt to come to terms with the climate. The climatic change issue is far too serious a matter to leave to those who should have known better for many decades and who were not interested in or aware of matters relating to the oceans. It is high time to enforce what is by far the best convention for under­standing and protecting the climate — the 1982 U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea — before it is too late. After all, it is the first global constitution and would therefore compel humankind to ensure that the planet remains a place worth living in. There is no need to "detect the earth's climate" and even less is there a need for a banner to serve IPCC's "greatest scientific challenge."-

BOOK Page 5 – Introduction (1_11) - Prologue
 The following text is an article by the book author published 1993 in ‘L.O.S. Lieder’ of the Law of the Sea Institute, William S. Richardson School of Law; University of Hawaii]


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